Banned ozone-destroying gas may still be in production

Banned ozone-destroying gas may still be in production

Once widely used as a foaming agent, production of CFC-11 was phased out by the Montreal Protocol in 2010. "There's a reasonable chance we'll figure out what's happening here", he said.

There is a small chance that there is a more innocent explanation for the rise in CFC-11 emissions, the scientist say.

Officially, the production of CFC-11 should be near zero or nearly zero - at least, those are the countries that cooperate with the United Nations body that monitors and ensures compliance with the Montreal Protocol.

Zaelke said he was surprised by the findings, not just because the chemical has always been banned, but also because alternatives already exist, making it hard to imagine what the market for CFC-11 today would be.

However, a study recently published in Nature reveals that CFC-11 production may be happening somewhere in the world despite the Montreal Protocol.

Today, from its peak in 1993, CFC-11 concentrations have declined by 15 percent. This means that the total concentration of ozone-depleting chemicals, overall, is still decreasing in the atmosphere.

"The newer substances that are out there, the replacements for CFC-11, might be more hard or expensive for some countries to produce or get at".

For the study, scientists at NOAA and Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at University of Colorado, Boulder, in the USA made precise measurements of global atmospheric concentrations of CFC-11. Then, surprisingly, the rate of decline hardly changed over the decade that followed.

Banned ozone-destroying gas may still be in production
Banned ozone-destroying gas may still be in production

But in 2012 scientists noted that the rate of decline had slowed by 50 per cent, according to the new study.

After considering a number of possible causes, Montzka and his colleagues concluded that CFC emissions must have increased after 2012. They found that the difference in CFC-11 concentrations between the northern and southern hemispheres has been increasing, which points to a northern hemisphere source.

"It really looks like somebody is making it new" in violation of global law, says Montzka. By the end of the year, the Montreal Protocol was signed in a global effort to ban the products and heal the ozone layer. Under the treaty's requirements, nations have reported less than 500 tons of new CFC-11 production per year since 2010.

The protocol was a huge success, slowly shrinking the giant hole that forms over Antarctica each September.

The researchers built mathematical models to account for these observations, which suggest CFC-11 emissions have actually been increasing by around 25% each year since 2012, despite virtually no CFC-11 production being reported to the relevant authorities during this time.

To put that in perspective, production of CFC-11, marketed under the trade name Freon, peaked at about 430,000 tons per year in the 1980s.

If the source of these new emissions can be identified and controlled soon, the damage to the ozone layer should be minor, Montzka said. However, in 1987, an worldwide team of scientists proved that the emissions of such chemicals were actually harming the environment, particularly the ozone layer.

If the study is verified, this would be a clear violation of the Montreal Protocol.


Related News:

  • Scott Pruitt Should be 'Under Oath Before Breakfast'

    Scott Pruitt Should be 'Under Oath Before Breakfast'

    Additionally, a USA senator blasted Pruitt for flying first-class because of security reasons, saying no one 'knows who you are'. As Pruitt left the hearing room, protesters trailed him through the halls of the Senate office building shouting "Mr.
    The Crew 2 closed beta starts in late May on PC, consoles

    The Crew 2 closed beta starts in late May on PC, consoles

    The open-world and racing were praised on release, but the always online requirements were a source of frustration for players. The closed beta will be kicking off at the very end of this month (May 31st) and following until June 4th.
    England name squad for first Test against Pakistan

    England name squad for first Test against Pakistan

    Buttler's last Test came against India 18 months ago and averages 31.36 from his 18 appearances in the longest format to date. England face Pakistan in the first Test at Lord's starting on May 24, before the second encounter at Headingley from June 1.
  • Trump helped Europe lose its illusions - Tusk

    Trump helped Europe lose its illusions - Tusk

    Europe's mood is shifting from shock at Trump's "America First" agenda to a resolve to close ranks and assert its own position. The deal is dead". "Transatlantic ties are and remain of paramount importance", Merkel told the German parliament.
    The Senate argues that Putin interfered to help Trump win the election

    The Senate argues that Putin interfered to help Trump win the election

    A big question has been whether that was his father, and whether Trump Jr. might have informed his father about the meeting. Trump has denied any collusion with Russian Federation on his campaign and calls Mueller's investigation a "witch hunt".
    East Orchard Mesa girl in 'fair' condition after bear attack

    East Orchard Mesa girl in 'fair' condition after bear attack

    Colorado Parks and Wildlife officers are trying to find the bear with the help of federal wildlife services personnel. Wildlife officers in Mesa County are now searching for the bear to make sure no one else is attacked.
  • Mum's proposal upstaged by peeing three-year-old son

    Mum's proposal upstaged by peeing three-year-old son

    While a moment is being captured, making an unwanted presence felt in the frame is good fun. The video was originally posted to Facebook but removed after a complaint was filed.
    Dog saves friend from drowning in family's pool after falling in

    Dog saves friend from drowning in family's pool after falling in

    A viral video shows a hero dog saving his buddy after it fell into a backyard pool and could have drowned. The video was captured on a security camera at the home of Laurie and Jay Becerra, KSAT reported .
    Trailer of Freddie Mercury's 'Bohemian Rhapsody' out

    Trailer of Freddie Mercury's 'Bohemian Rhapsody' out

    Bohemian Rhapsody is scheduled for release in the United States on 2 November, however an Australian date is yet to be announced. The first trailer for Fox's upcoming Queen movie Bohemian Rhapsody has come online-and it is pretty great.
  • What do you hear, is it Yanny or Laurel?

    What do you hear, is it Yanny or Laurel?

    Republican House Speaker Paul Ryan said he'd like "to declare something that is just so obvious: It is laurel and not yanny ". Roland Szabo of Georgia was identified by the New York Times as the person who originally uploaded the clip to Reddit.
    Arab ministers to meet over 'Israeli aggression on Palestinians'

    Arab ministers to meet over 'Israeli aggression on Palestinians'

    Israel said it is defending its border and accuses Hamas of trying to carry out attacks under the cover of the protests. Hoyer's defense of Israel also came despite growing progressive criticism of Israeli human rights abuses.
    Alfie Evans, British toddler at center of legal storm, laid to rest

    Alfie Evans, British toddler at center of legal storm, laid to rest

    A separate vigil was held in Liverpool's Springfield Park last Wednesday to mark what would have been Alfie's second birthday. Evans was born on May 9, 2016, and was first taken to hospital in December of that year after suffering seizures.


Most liked

Michael Carrick picks up Man Utd coaching reins for FA Cup final
United will have the chance to give their captain the flawless sending off when they take on Chelsea in the FA Cup final on May 19.

Riz Ahmed Wants to Write 'Ms. Marvel' With Mindy Kaling
Marvel is now in the midst of shooting Captain Marvel starring Brie Larson and will move onto introducing the teenage-superhero. Marvel's introduction to the MCU still lies somewhere in the future, and possibly the somewhat distant future at that.

Seattle's tax on Amazon to help homeless may fall short, locals say
Amazon , in fact, is now expanding beyond its 45,000 employees and plans to add 7,000 more employees and build a new skyscraper. The Seattle region had the third-highest number of homeless people in the US and saw 169 homeless deaths past year .

YouTube announces new streaming service, YouTube Music
Google plans on expanding the availability of its new music streaming service in the coming weeks to major European countries. It will include the personalized playlists that will be totally based on the user's YouTube's usage pattern and app history.

Nick Cave and Warren Ellis to score new Adnan Syed TV Series
The series will start by look into the events leading up to Min Lee's disappearance and go all the way through to the present day. The premiere date of " The Case Against Adnan Syed " hasn't been announced yet, but it will debut on HBO in the United States.

'New Fox' names exec team with Lachlan taking the helm
Its broadcasting and cable sports brands will have coveted, long-term sports rights to the NFL, MLB, World Cup soccer and NASCAR. James Murdoch now serves as chairman of Sky PLC, where he was earlier forced out for four years after a phone-hacking scandal.

Double Amputee Summits Everest Decades After Losing Feet In Failed Attempt
The first time Xia tried to climb Mount Everest in 1975, he lost his feet due to severe frostbite and they required amputation. During his attempt on the mountain in 2016 he got within 94 metres of the summit, but there was a sudden snowstorm.

Honor 10 Launched In India With 6GB Of RAM, Android 8.1 Oreo
The device comes to India in Midnight Black and Phantom Blue color variants , while it launched in four color variants in Europe. The device features a 5.84-inch Full HD+ 2.5D curved glass display with a resolution of 2280 x 1080 and a pixel density of 19:9.

Fortnite Patch Delayed, New Downtime Announced
Fortnite-mania is now taking over the world, with the battle royale version of the game undoubtedly the biggest in recent memory. Research has revealed that in April Twitch megastar Tyler "Ninja" Blevins had the biggest social interactions of all athletes.

Click It or Ticket Seat Belt Mobilization May 21-June 3
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, seat belts save approximately 13,000 lives each year. Law enforcement and safety officials want to ultimately see a 100 percent compliance rate.

Crystal Palace boss Roy Hodgson gives Wilfried Zaha's transfer update
The Eagles are unbeaten in their last five games, winning three games and picking up 11 points. Palace missed out on a place in the top ten on goal difference.

Another Terror Attack in Indonesia — Travel Warning
State news wires Antara said that two journalists who were at the headquarters were also wounded. One ran away but was later captured and taken to the Pekanbaru Police headquarters.

Barletta scores GOP victory, primed to battle Casey for Senate
Trump captured the state in 2016 by less than one percentage point, becoming the first Republican to win Pennsylvania since 1988. Fischer, the incumbent, defeated four GOP challengers and will be the strong favorite to win re-election in deep-red Nebraska.

Girls Fare Better Than Boys In ICSE and ISC Board Result
The southern region was followed by the western region with a pass percentage of 99.67 in ISCE and 97.22 in ISC. Gregorious high school - are among the third rankers in the national merit list, with a score of 99 per cent .

Hue Jackson will jump in Lake Erie on June 1
Established in 2017 alongside his wife, Michelle, Jackson's foundation aims to battle human trafficking across Northeast Ohio. Jackson also noted he is "hoping to cleanse ourselves of all the losing from the past two seasons" with the jump.