Incredible breakthrough shows transfer of memories possible

Scientists Sucked a Memory Out of a Snail and Stuck It in Another Snail

Scientists have achieved what seemed impossible, they have transferred a memory from one living organism to another.

The scientists believe the information could provide clues to where memories are physically stored and how they can be altered.

"It's as though we transferred the memory", said David Glanzman, who is also a member of UCLA's Brain Research Institute. The team's research is published May 14 in eNeuro, the online journal of the Society for Neuroscience. He told the Guardian that the work is interesting but that he doesn't think that the team transferred a memory.

The scientists gave mild electric shocks to the tails of a species of marine snail called Aplysia californica.

As it turned out, the RNA samples retained the memory of the electric shock, causing the untrained snails to exhibit a defense mechanism that lasted nearly as long as that of the donor snails. At first, the snails would only retreat for a few seconds, but through repeated shocks, the scientists trained them to curl up for a longer period of time, about 50 seconds.


Next, researchers extracted RNA from the trained and untrained snails. It turned out that the transplantation of ribonucleic acids from sensitized snails contributed to the development of molluscs in the control group, the conditioned reflex of a duration of 40 seconds.

In comparison, snails tapped without electricity retreated for an average of 10 seconds. "If circulating neural RNAs can transfer behavioral states and tendencies, orchestrating both the transient feeling and the more permanent memory, it suggests that human memory-just like mood-will only be explained by exploring the interplay between bodies and brains". The snails in the control group did not display this behavior, indicating that the injection was responsible. But scientists have been studying sea snails for a long time, and they know an terrible lot about how the organisms learn. A second cohort, untrained, did not show the reflex. The researchers also tested some of the same techniques on snail neurons in a petri dish. Adding RNA from a marine snail that was not given the tail shocks did not produce this increased excitability in sensory neurons.

Researchers say that his experiment shows how essential parts of the memory trace or engram can be. (Each neuron has several thousand synapses.) Glanzman holds a different view, believing that memories are stored in the nucleus of neurons.

"If memories were stored at synapses, there is no way our experiment would have worked", he said. This simple form of learning is known as "sensitization". But despite the vast difference, the researchers said the cells of marine snails are still similar to those of humans, which makes this discovery that much more significant.

Glanzman predicts that in the future we could use our knowledge of RNA to actually awaken and restore memories that have been lost in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

Related News:



Most liked

Manuel Neuer in Germany's 2018 World Cup Provisional Squad, Gotze Misses out
They face Sweden in Sochi six days later before rounding off their Group F campaign against South Korea in Kazan. Sandro has shown his class when with the team".

School district looks to cut spending by $3.5 Million in 2019-20
The three closures are expected to save between $2.5 to $3 million total in the overall budget, according to Clark. Votes can be cast between 10 a.m. and 9 p.m., in the music room of the intermediate school on Leland Lane.

South Dakota Senator Mike Rounds Undecided on Gina Haspel Vote
If we think America despises torture, it's worth noting that we've elected a president who is an unequivocal proponent of its use. Any pilot with enough courage to fly off an aircraft carrier is already well past halfway to being a hero.

Car issues delayed Hamilton contract talks, says Wolff
He then delivered a decent showing to finish second on Sunday. Kevin Magnussen in the Haas finished in P6 behind Ricciardo. The Finn, however, has responded strongly to that reproval.

The clock is ticking, EU warns Britain of poor Brexit progress
It is discussing two potential options that have divided cabinet members. United Kingdom ministers are now considering setting up a rival version.

Fox Executives On Cancelling Brooklyn 99 And Picking Up Last Man Standing
Last week, Fox canceled several comedies on its lineup, including Brooklyn Nine-Nine. Meanwhile, " Gotham " and " The Orville ", will be held back for midseason .

Honor 10 launched: Watch unboxing and first impressions
The smartphone features the trendy notched display at the top but retains a chin at the bottom to adjust the fingerprint scanner. I'm a little less enamoured with the software, however, which I cover in detail on the next page of this Honor 10 review.

NBC To Debut 3 New Shows In September, 8 For The Season
Crews joined NBC's entertainment chairman, Robert Greenblatt , in saying that the show made more sense on NBC's line-up. Here lately, the Fox network has been booting many of its television shows, from The Exorcist to The Last Man on Earth .

Rage 2's Gameplay Shown Off In New Trailer
If you think Mad Max on Peyote meets a turbo-charged Fallout 4 then you won't be too far from what to expect from Rage 2 . While there's no context right now, Bethesda has confirmed that a full gameplay trailer will follow later today.

Nokia X6 specs, price leaked: Notch display, Snapdragon 636 and more
The smartphone will come with 32GB or 64GB of onboard storage, which can be further expanded with an external MicroSD card. The Nokia X6 is fueled by a 3,060mAh battery that is enabled with support for 18W Quick Charge 3.0 rapid charging.

German football stars criticized over photos with Erdogan
The United States had forfeited its role as a mediator in the Middle East by moving its Israel embassy to Jerusalem, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said.

Microsoft's store now fully supports gifting
In a tweet by leakster WalkingCat , a render of what appears to be an upcoming Xbox One controller has been leaked. As of yet, there is no word on how this new controller actually works, but the leaked images provide some idea.

Tim Cook Opens a New Front in Apple-Facebook Battle
Apple chooses its products not to be customers, an opinion Cook emphasized again during Duke's graduation ceremony on Sunday. However, it's not just the social media giant that does such things.

Europa water plume: Another step toward living on a moon
In other words, the spacecraft had flown through a localized plume maybe 620 miles wide somewhere near the moon's equator. That's particularly exciting because it also suggests that Europa may have an energy source propelling the water skyward.

Title Match Confirmed For WWE Raw This Week
Dolph Ziggler and Drew McIntyre had a plan last night, and it involved redirecting the force of nature known as Braun Strowman. On the other hand, Roman Reigns extracted revenge on Jinder Mahal for costing him his match last week.